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Cyber criminology is an interdisciplinary look that includes figuring out the reasons for cybercrime—combining know-how from criminology, psychology, sociology, pc science, and cybersecurity—to supply in-intensity information of the character of cybercrime withinside the crook justice system. Specifically, cyber criminology explores the reasons and effects of crime and deviance in our online world in addition to its felony troubles, ethics, prevention, and manipulation strategies. This is a discipline that is closely invested in offering solutions to regulation-making, regulation-breaking, and regulation enforcement processes, in particular the system of creating and implementing legal guidelines that observe studies in regions of crook justice coverage or regulation enforcement practices.
There are studies strands in cyber criminology. One is the software of widespread crime-associated theories—for example, social manipulate, willpower, lifestyle, delinquency theories—to cybercrime; while the alternative includes concept-trying out or developing new theories to cybercrime. The Cyber-routine sports concept (Choi, 2008; 2015) and area transition concept (Jaishankar, 2008) are such examples.
However, what continues to be lacking is possibly greater interdisciplinary views and theories. In particular, linking social sciences (e.g., criminology, psychology, sociology, etc.) with technical views (e.g., pc science, cybersecurity, etc.) is specifically essential and relatively needed. The International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime (IJCIC) ambitions to offer a road for this attempt and contribute to the developing discipline of cyber criminology and cybersecurity.
In a try to make a contribution to this rising discipline, the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime purpose to spotlight the origins, patterns, reasons, motivations, and trends of cybersecurity and cybercrime in a cutting-edge era, at the same time as additionally offering new techniques and strategies to present troubles withinside the discipline. In this inaugural issue, we’ve got six contributions including studies articles, coverage papers, and commentaries. These contributions offer international, international, and coverage views on the unlawful content material on social media, cyberterrorism, social engineering, hackers, and cyber social deviance. In addition, this inaugural series of labor advocates for better training cybersecurity interdisciplinary application to similarly the increase and know-how inside this discipline of look at.
The proliferation of social media packages has multiplied the number of dangerous interactions and content material online. Majid Yar (2018)’s paper entitled “A Failure to Regulate? The Demands and Dilemmas of Tackling Illegal Content and Behaviour on Social Media” properly addresses this issue. In particular, sexually-orientated content material concerning kids and the racially or religiously hateful online content material withinside the UK context. The converting nature of providers’ unwillingness and/or incapability to successfully stem the waft of unlawful and dangerous content material has created a disaster for the prevailing self-regulatory model; consequently, we now pass closer to a far greater coercive and punitive stance closer to media platforms, to compel them into taking greater concerted action.
Online hate speech—one of the cybercrimes mentioned via way of means of Yar—become empirically examined in our next paper. With evolved and excessive technology and Internet platforms, terrorists can control the converting nature of our online world in their favor. Cyberattacks via way of means of each home criminals and overseas terrorists pose extreme threats that require the FBI’s interest (FBI, n.d.). Terrorists in our online world are more and more utilizing social media to sell their ideologies, recruit new members, and justify terrorist assaults and actions. Kyung-Shick Choi, Claire S. Lee, and Robert Cadigan (2018)’s paper entitled “Spreading Propaganda in Cyberspace: Comparing Cyber-Resource Usage of Al Qaeda and ISIS” properly offers with the issue. Using an “international cyberterrorism dataset” with annual terrorist reviews, courtroom docket cases, and information reviews from 2011 to 2016, Choi and his colleagues argue that specific terrorist companies use our online world and technology differently. Al Qaeda-affiliated cyberterrorists, for example, use YouTube films as each person reasserts and embedded reasserts for Facebook and Twitter, while ISIS-affiliated cyberterrorists predominantly use YouTube films and Twitter posts.
This calls our interest to the specific methods terrorists put in force for their recruitment and propaganda online in addition to online hate speech. Following facts technological development, hacking has grown to be a pervasive form
of crime international in latest years. In this regard, “Juvenile Hackers: An Empirical Test of Self-Control Theory and Social Bonding Theory” via way of means of Sinchul Back, Sadhika Soor, and Jennifer LaPrade used a present survey on center faculty and excessive faculty college students withinside the United States, Russia, Spain, Venezuela,
France, Hungary, Germany, and Poland comparatively (Back et al., 2018). Their outcomes display strong help for Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi’s (1990) willpower concept and partial help for Hirschi’s (1969) social bond concept.
Cybercrime and cybersecurity are ubiquitous and interconnected between different platforms, locations, and actors. These topics change rapidly and evolve with new skills and technologies. We look forward to receiving input from academics, policy analysts, practitioners, and others to improve the theory, method, and practice of cybersecurity and cybercrime at the national, regional, and international levels.
By 2024, the total cost of data breaches will reach $ 5 trillion, according to a Juniper Research study. The study predicted that this astronomical amount will be the result of an increase in fines, in large part due to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), and all other protection laws. of data that will appear in the next five. Years, however, a 70 percent increase in cybercrime should be expected even during this period, another reason for the rising costs of data breaches. The study predicts that artificial intelligence (AI) will be responsible for much of the increase, not only because more companies will depend on AI in the future, but also because threat actors will use the technology to launch advanced cyberattacks, of course, everything is predictable, probably based precisely on the history of cyber threats, but it also raises the question: what does the future of cybercrime look like? What will the threat landscape look like, not so much in five years as in one or two years? The more we know about the future, the more accurate the threat analysis will be. Today’s technology can guide predictions. Technology in the early stages of its popularity is the most secure, an ideal time for companies to conduct predictive threat intelligence.
For example, most of us recall using malware attacks to target Windows machines, which made Apple users feel superior because they were “safe” from cyberattacks. Subsequently, Apple has become more common and its operating systems (OS) are no longer immune to attacks. The same has happened with mobile applications and now with the Internet of Things (IoT) As AI becomes more widespread, both will be attacked 4,004 Where will we see cybercrime go? According to Nicole Eagan, CEO of Darktrace, we can expect to see a digital war of algorithms.
“Autonomous cyberattacks can have a defined goal, intellectual property, or persist opportunistically for monetary gain or damage,” Eagan noted in a Forbes article. across entire networks and data. “And it will be nearly impossible to stop it.
But AI isn’t the only threat on the horizon. As the world becomes more connected and everything becomes a smart device, expect cybercriminals to spread malware from one device to another. another, another while “talking” to each other. Through the IoT, threat actors will be able to obtain credentials that allow them to access and control all devices in an organization or the home.
Also read: The Legality of Online Gambling in India
Implicit Cyberterrorist Acts
Let us examine some exemplifications of Cyberterrorist acts. Grounded on the delineations of terrorism, a determination can be made if they constitute terrorism
- A CyberTerrorist will ever pierce the processing control systems of a cereal manufacturer, change the situations of iron supplements, and revolt and kill the children of a nation enjoying their food. That CyberTerrorist will also perform analogous remote differences at a processor of child formula. The key the CyberTerrorist doesn’t have to be at the plant to execute these acts.
- A CyberTerrorist will place several motorized losers around a megacity, all contemporaneously transmitting unique numeric patterns, each lemon entering each other pattern. However, all the losers crump contemporaneously, if bomb one stops transmitting. The keys
1) the CyberTerrorist doesn’t have to be strapped to any of these losers;
2) no large truck is needed;
3) the number of losers and civic dissipation is expansive;
4) the translated patterns cannot be prognosticated and matched through alternate transmission, and
5) the number of losers helps to disarm them all contemporaneously. The losers will crump.
- A CyberTerrorist will disrupt the banks, transnational fiscal deals, the stock exchanges. The key the people of a country will lose all confidence in the profitable system. Would a CyberTerrorist attempt to gain entry to the Federal Reserve structure or original? Unlikely, since arrest would be immediate. Likewise, a large truck pulling alongside the structure would be noticed. Still, in the case of the CyberTerrorist, the perpetrator is sitting on another mainland while a nation’s profitable systems grind to a halt. Destabilization will be achieved.
- A CyberTerrorist will attack the coming generation of air business control systems, and collide with two large mercenary aircraft. This is a realistic script since the CyberTerrorist will also crack the aircraft’s in-cockpit detectors. Important of the same can be done to the rail lines.
- A CyberTerrorist will ever alter the formulas of the drug at pharmaceutical manufacturers. The implicit loss of life is unfathomable.
- The CyberTerrorist may also decide to ever change the pressure in the gas lines, causing a stopcock failure, and a block of a sleepy exurb detonates and burns. Likewise, the electrical grid is getting steadily more vulnerable.
In effect, the CyberTerrorist will make certain that the population of a nation won’t be suitable to eat, drink, move, or live. In addition, the people charged with the protection of their nation won’t have a warning, and won’t be suitable to shut down the terrorist, since that CyberTerrorist is most likely on the other side of the world.
Sorely, these exemplifications aren’t wisdom fabrication. All of these scripts can be executed moment. As you may know, some of these incidents formerly have passed in colorful nations. Further similar acts will take place hereafter. Are you prepared?
CyberTerrorists Who, Where, and Why?
. The purpose of this paper is to help you understand the pitfalls that live, and hopefully, to help you help these types of atrocities. But know this-there are people out there with veritably different pretensions, who are our real pitfalls, and who are, or will be, attacking us. Make no mistake, the pitfalls are real, moment.
Who are the CyberTerrorists? They are great numerous poor pictures and too numerous workshops of fabrication about the hacker and cracker communities. In the popular media, there lately was the Kevin Mitnick incident, where one cracker broke into another cracker’s systems. This spawned endless press and at least two best-dealing books. While this incident entered important attention, the events amounted to pointless children’s games.
By and large, the cracker community, grounded primarily in the United States, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and the nations of the former Soviet Union, is composed of individualities who see the cracking process simply as a challenge, a brain teaser, a mystification. They view themselves as not only being innocent of any crime but maybe indeed doing commodity righteous, the commodity to fight the dark monoliths of the commercial and government worlds. They believe they’re being bedevilled. These individuals believe that what they’re doing isn’t doing any true damage. At its least dangerous, these crackers just look at the information. Still, sequestration issues and military secretiveness can render similar infiltrations acts of terror.
Occasionally crackers make minor changes, just for fun, to be annoying, or to make a statement. The eventuality for damage here is enormous.
Crackers as Facilitators
Individualities with a background in intelligence are apprehensive that a frequent element of case prosecution is enlisting the indigenous, occasionally called “facilitators,” to help in a crusade. At the confluence of the physical and virtual worlds, the indigenous are the crackers.
There’s the incorrect supposition in the cracking community that they, the crackers, are so sophisticated or so knowledgeable as to know when they’re being approached for a truly lawless reason (e.g., to be enlisted as a facilitator to commit an act of terrorism). Still, despite cracker arrogance, these individualities are easy targets for investiture.
What about those crackers who laboriously wish to cross the line, or further principally, need plutocrat? To a teenager, a $ U.S. can buy good numerous compact disks, a new modem, and a great deal of drink. Beyond youths, there are professionals in this arena as well.
Historically, individualities engaged in the practice of terror tended not to be people working upon a computer 20 hours per day. Terrorists haven’t been in the business of tracking the rearmost holes plant in UNIX or an obscure government telnet occasion. There are people, still, who are in that business-for lawless as well as good cause. As stated, just as indigenous people may be turned into dogfaces, so can crackers be turned into CyberTerrorists. Occasionally such a transition may be motivated by plutocrat or prestige. Generally, this transition will do without the cracker’s cognizance. The implicit trouble from similar transitions is mind-boggling, considering the damage indeed one misdirected cracker can beget.
Further, as youthful, educated people are brought into the crowds of terrorist groups, this new generation will have the gift to execute the acts of CyberTerrorism of which we’ve spoken.
We’re going to see adding situations of in-house moxie, and attendant exponential increases in Cyberterrorism. Unlike other styles of terrorism, CyberTerrorism is safe and profitable, and delicate to fight without the right moxie and understanding of the CyberTerrorist’s mind. Combine our adding vulnerability, with the explosive increases in the position of violence, and adding moxie available inside terrorist associations through new blood and outdoors through facilitators, and we can see that at the point where the physical and virtual worlds meet, the old models of managing terrorism are obsolete.
Styles of Protection
We must consider the ensuing rudiments when erecting encounter-CyberTerrorist program
- We must accept that while the propositions of terrorism stand true, how we approach counter-terrorism, in this case, counter-CyberTerrorism, must change.
- We must cooperate and partake intelligence in ways we’ve no way to have ahead.
- We must matriculate the backing of those individualities who understand the munitions we’re facing and have endured fighting these wars.
- We must learn the new rules, the new technologies, and the new players.
Unfortunately, one cannot learn how to fight this veritably unconventional warfare from someone who hasn’t been there, nor from someone whose experience is in the old ways and old technologies. The old data processing, auditing, and computer security models in use moment are obsolete. On this battleground, against this armament, the terrorist is formerly far ahead. The structure of a counter-CyberTerrorist platoon must be real-time and dynamic, as the munitions will continually change, to transubstantiate, in an attempt to beat you, your systems, and your people. There’s more machining, and unlike other terrorists, if the CyberTerrorist loses moment, he doesn’t die-he learn what didn’t work and will use that information against you hereafter.
Still, your association, and your country are safe behind firewalls, If a computer security council states that you. The only result is the quick deployment of counter-CyberTerrorist-someone who knows what you’re up against moment, someone who lives in the world of the people who are, and will be, attacking-someone who can train the people who must fight the battles.
Author: Vipasa Rana, Himachal Pradesh National Law University
Editor: Kanishka Vaish, Senior Editor, LexLife India.