Analysis on 17 Sustainable Development Goals: Rehabilitation by United Nations

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INTRODUCTION

As the world is rapidly changing and new generations are coming, youngsters are often found introducing these fancy slangs for instance millennials, Gen Z, Gen Alpha and many more for separating them from other existing generations and the world is swamped with analyzing these tags. 

While the earth’s health is deteriorating, people are still sleeping empty stomach, gender inequality is pervasive, many countries are doesn’t support peace, people are losing their families because of insufficient health and medical facilities, mankind is unaware about the fact that sanitization and cleanliness is a fix of tons of issues, partnership problems, the literacy rate of the world is still 86.4% approximately, and many more obstacles are existing in the world as of now which are not even known by the community. 

The world needs help more than ever because if we don’t demolish it now, it’ll be getting worse and could be troublesome for our future generation, it’s heartful to observe that after coming so far and living in the 21st-century humanity is so much misplacing at a bunch of levels, paramount matters and welfare is endangered. Nowadays, humans are so busy articulating their needs that they have entirely forgotten about the value of service and saving. In our daily lives, we are engaged in fulfilling our shellfish needs where it’s sabotaging our earth and making it a difficult place for the vulnerable and unfavored sector of society.

Hence, considering the requirements and condition of the world triggers to take immediate action for long run amelioration of our planet. Therefore, The United Nations General Assembly endorsed the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in September 2015, which comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The new Agenda stresses a comprehensive approach to achieving sustainable development for all, based on the idea of “leaving no one behind.”

The inception of 17 Sustainable Development Goals 

SDGs are 17 sustainable goals that are envisioned to achieve by 2030 for the betterment of society, eleven times (11), disability and people with disabilities are expressly mentioned. Disability is referenced in several aspects of the SDGs, including education, growth and employment, inequality, human settlement accessibility, and data collecting and monitoring of the SDGs. 

The SDGs were implemented for the first time in 2016. At this critical juncture, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development holds great potential for people with disabilities all around the globe.

The Sustainable Development Goals address several aspects of social development, environmental preservation, and economic progress, as listed below:

  1. Take the edge off the Inequalities, especially Gender inequality.

Gender Parity is one of the paramount goals which need to be achieved around the globe, to achieve other existing goals because all starts from people and if they all work together irrespective of gender everything around becomes exponentially easier to achieve and open to infinite potential with the unexpected idea. More than anything it’s the fundamental right for every human to have equal rights without any illegitimate reins by the patriarchal society. 

  • To promote healthy existence, poverty and hunger must be obliterated.  

Health is the paramount aspect concerning the growth of the globe, it’s extremely essential for sustainable development and securing the future generation from any uncertainty. The recent pandemic is an example that there’s an immense need to boost the immunity of the people for guarding and protecting them from any uncertainty.

690 million people go hungry, and 2 billion are malnourished, but there is enough food but is there easy accessibility? And this arises the quick need to find out the solution and making sure that no one sleeps empty stomach or die out of hunger. Plenty of beings are unable to afford necessities for themselves and their family which is another cause of hunger. Hence, it’s crucial to eradicate poverty from the world since it’s a solution for a bunch of existing social distress. 

  • Contribute to the creation of future opportunities through promoting inclusive education and a decent job.

The average literacy rate is 78.46% which is bitter pill which means it’s significant to find ways to get to that 100%, knowing it’s the fundamental right of every human to be educated irrespective of gender, race, religion or anything else. It’s detrimental nevertheless not impossible to achieve, in the past years raising awareness programs and new policies have made impeccable impact combined with growth in the average percentage of literacy rate.

  • Ensure universal access to essential amenities such as safe water, sanitation, and sustainable energy. 

Water is extremely essential for life, one cannot survive without water specifically safe water, it’s vital for so many chores of daily life, sanitization is the single remedy for tons of issues such as health. Sustainability use of energy is pivotal for our future generation and maintaining life on the earth. 

  • Combating climate change and safeguarding seas and terrestrial ecosystems are examples of environmental responsibility.

Climate and the ocean are intricately interconnected. By acting as a large heat and carbon sink, the ocean plays a critical role in mitigating climate change. Climate change also has an impact on the ocean, as indicated by variations in temperature, currents, and sea-level rise, all of which have an impact on the health of marine organisms and nearshore and deep-ocean ecosystems.

  • Establishing peace, justice, and sustainable institutions

Without peace, stability, human rights, and good government based on the rule of law, we cannot hope for long-term progress. Nonetheless, our world is becoming increasingly divided. Some places enjoy peace, security, and prosperity, while others appear to be trapped in never-ending cycles of strife and violence. This is inescapable, and it must be tackled now.

Elucidation and Desideratum of 17 SDG’S 

GOAL 1: No Poverty

Poverty eradication is not a charitable endeavour, but rather the key to releasing vast human potential. Despite this, about half of the world’s population remains impoverished, and a lack of food and clean water kills thousands every day of the year. Goal 1 of the SDGs aims to feed the hungry, eradicate sickness, and provide an opportunity for everyone in the world to succeed and enjoy a productive and full life.

Pandemic has undoubtedly contributed to this and has worsened the situation, it was predicted that by 2021, up to 150 million people might be living in extreme poverty which needs to be addressed and combat at this level only to secure from the horrendous situation that may arise. Therefore, United Nations came up with no poverty agenda as goal 1 because eradicating poverty can assist in combating so many more social issues at once.

GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

Zero Hunger – The World Food Programme’s priority, Goal 2, Zero Hunger vows to eradicate hunger, ensure food security, enhance nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. On average, every night, almost 8.9 per cent of the world’s population, 690 million individuals still go to bed on an empty stomach and it’s still rising If current trends continue, and no measure is taken, the numbers will exceed 840 million by 2030, the situation is now or never, it’s paramount to take necessary actions by each country individually as well as partnering with international policies.

The agenda is that no one dies out of hunger and every kind have enough food in there because food is the most basic requirement for surviving, not only food but the food which fulfils and cure malnutrition since the health of today’s youth is the future of us.

GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

Goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals focuses on ensuring health and well-being for all people at all periods of evolution. Furthermore, it asks for more research and development, increased healthcare finance, and stronger ability in all nations to reduce and manage health risks. By 2030: –

  • significantly decrease maternal mortality and eliminate avoidable deaths of infants and children under the age of 5. 
  • end the AIDS, Tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical illnesses plagues. 
  • enhance the efficacy of substance addiction prevention and treatment, especially narcotic drug addiction and problematic alcohol use.  
  • increase medical practitioner recruitment, development, training, and retention in developing nations, particularly in the least developed nations and small island developing states. 
  • improve all nations’ abilities to detect, reduce, and manage national and global health threats, with a focus on developing nations. 

Prior pandemic visible improvement has endeavoured but sooner the blizzard of infectious coronavirus hit hard globally, which took a toll on the improvement, nonetheless, all the improvement was much of succour. The pandemic is a critical point for health disaster preparedness and investment in essential 21st-century public services.

GOAL 4: Quality Education

“Better education provides all students with the knowledge they need to be economically successful, create sustainable lives, serve to fair and harmonious countries, and promote individual quality of life.” As per the World Health Organization, more than 200 million children would be out of school by 2030. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to more than half of the unenrolled youngsters. 617 million young people globally lack simple mathematics and literacy abilities. In 2016, 750 million individuals – two-thirds of whom were women – were illiterate. South Asia is home to half of the world’s illiterate population. 

Education is the remedy and key for so many accesses, it’s a fundamental right of every human and no one should be left behind, it enables people to analyze and assists in raising awareness regarding the right of every human also it doesn’t discriminate. Knowledge is the only power that can’t be taken away from one. 

By 2030 it is envisioned to achieve the following goals concerning the goal 4 are:-

  • guarantee that all women and men have equitable access to affordable and high-quality technical, vocational, and postsecondary education 
  • Ensure that all girls and boys have access to high-quality early childhood development, care, and pre-primary education so that they are prepared for primary school.
  • Increase the number of adolescents and adults with necessary skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, good jobs, and entrepreneurship significantly.
  • ensuring that all women and men have equitable access.
  • all adolescents and a significant number of adults, including men and women, have achieved literacy and numeracy. 
  • significantly increase the number of scholarships accessible to developing nations, particularly least developed nations, small island developing states, and African nations, for higher education enrollment.
  •  Build and renovate educational institutions that need repair.

GOAL 5: Gender Equality

“Life is not a competition between different gender. It’s the collaboration”, hence it’s crucial to bring gender parity and eradicate any kind of discrimination based on gender each gender deserve equal respect and opportunities and their gender must not be the cause of holding them back, patriarchy and misogynist mindset must be deleted to attain this paramount goal of SDGs. Hence, United Nations has decided it to be the goal and with a vision of achieving it by 2030 by making it a global agenda.

Major issues are Unequal rights and laws, Female Genital Mutilation, Sexual and domestic violence, Ignorance of girl’s education, Gender Pay Gap, Unequal employment opportunities and Maternity and Reproductive health etc.

  • between the ages of 15 and 19, at least 200 million women and girls in 30 countries have experienced FGM.
  • no laws in 49 nations explicitly protect women against abuse by an intimate relationship.
  • husbands can legally restrict their wives from working in 18 countries.
  • daughters and sons do not have equal inheritance rights in 39 nations. 
  • only 52% make their own choices concerning sexual encounters, contraception, and health care. 
  • In Northern Africa, women occupy fewer than one-fifth of all paid employment in the non-agricultural economy.

GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

Water is imperative for life and can’t be substituted at any cost, up to 60% of the human body is water. 71% of the earth is covered by water audibly earth provides us with plenty of water but only if used wisely. Only 0.4% of water can be used for drinking purpose for the population of 7.9 billion. One in every three people in the world does not have access to safe drinking water, two out of every five people do not have. access to a basic hand-washing facility with soap and water, and more than 673 million people continue to practice open defecation. The World Health Organization has called for immediate action for clean water and sanitization all around the world. 

Coronavirus has also depicted the paramount of clean water and sanitization because in this pandemic people who didn’t have access to clean water and sanitization were the most adversely affected among all. 

 Stressing the importance of water for sustainable development and the abolition of poverty and hunger, as well as deep concern about the lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as water-related disasters, etc is huge. 

United Nations endeavours the following by 2030 with SDG’S are: 

  • establish universal and equal access for all to safe and cheap drinking water,
  • enhance water quality globally by decreasing pollution,
  • halving the amount of untreated wastewater, and significantly boosting recycling and safe reuse,
  • to tackle water shortages and positively impact water-use efficiency across all sectors and guarantee sustainable withdrawals and supply of fresh water, and
  • Mountains, forests, marshes, rivers, aquifers, and lakes are all examples of water-related ecosystems that need to be protected and restored.

GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

Goal 7 of the SDGs aims to address this massive disparity by ensuring that everyone has access to cheap, dependable, and modern energy services by 2030. To increase energy availability, it is critical to improve energy efficiency and invest in renewable energy. Adopting cost-effective standards for a broader variety of technologies may help cut global power usage by buildings and industries by 14%. Nonetheless, greater effort is required to enhance 3 billion people’s access to clean and safe cooking fuels and technology, to extend the use of renewable energy outside the electrical sector, and to promote electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa.

It’s pivotal to begin now for the easy access and availability of energy to everyone also which is budget-friendly to achieve the following goals by 2030:

  • guarantee widespread access to cheap, dependable, and advanced energy services,
  • increase the percentage of renewable energy in the global energy mix significantly,
  • twice the worldwide pace of progress in energy efficiency,
  • encourage investment in energy infrastructure and renewable energy technology for everybody in developing nations, and
  • invest in clean energy research and technology to provide contemporary and sustainable energy.

GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

This goal promotes inclusive sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all, growth without any harm to the environment, which means ensure that financial success leads to the creation of quality and rewarding jobs, as well as sustainable development.

In 2015, one in every ten individuals in the globe lived on less than USD 1.90, and in far too many areas, having a job does not ensure the capacity to escape poverty. This sluggish and unequal development necessitates a rethinking and retooling of our poverty-eradication economic and social strategies. Hence, to the aim of eradicating unemployment and economic growth all over the world it’s significant to act in the favor of this goal and achieve the following targets by 2030:

  • reach greater and productive employment as well as meaningful work for all women and men, including young people and people with disabilities as well as equal compensation for equal value work 
  • ban and abolition of the most heinous types of child labour, such as the recruitment and deployment of child soldiers,
  • providing increased trade aid to developing nations, particularly the least developed countries
  • create and execute a worldwide plan for young employees, as well as the International Labour Organization’s Global Jobs Pact.
  • encourage the formalization and expansion of micro, small, and medium-sized businesses, including access to financial services, and
  • make efforts to divorce economic development from environmental degradation.

GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

Goal 9 aims for creating robust infrastructure, support inclusive and sustainable industrialization and encourage innovation. More than 4 billion people still do not have Internet access, with 90 per cent of them living in developing countries. Addressing the digital gap is critical for ensuring equitable access to information and knowledge while also encouraging entrepreneurialism.

Investment in innovations and infrastructure is vital drivers of growth. Therefore, combating these issues and agendas, it’s paramount to acknowledge that it’s a long journey that needs to be achieved by 2030 and endeavours to achieve the following targets:

  • Increase access to financial services, particularly cheap financing, for small-scale industrial and other companies, as well as their integration into value chains and marketplaces,
  • improve infrastructure and refit industries,
  • improve scientific research, upgrade industrial sectors’ technical capabilities in all nations, particularly emerging countries, and significantly raise the number of R&D employees per million people, and
  • Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing nations by increasing financial, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing countries.

GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

Reduced inequality is that goal which is a single solution to many SDG’S goals as well as for combating any other issue there might be existing if we treat everything without any discrimination based on sex, religion, race, place of birth. Undoubtedly this place will be a lot better to live in, all kinds of cruelty, discrimination comes from the mindset of inequality and prejudice. 

Lessening inequality and assuring that no one is left behind are critical components of attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. Inequality both inside and across countries is a continuous source of worry. Despite some encouraging signs of progress in some areas, such as reduced relative income disparity in some nations and preferential trade treatment for low-income countries, inequality exists. Inequalities are indeed widening among disadvantaged people in nations with poorer healthcare systems and those experiencing humanitarian disasters. Refugees and migrants, as well as indigenous peoples, the elderly, people with disabilities, and children, are especially vulnerable to being left behind. And hate speech directed at vulnerable populations is on the rise. On this account United Nations aims at achieving following targets by 2030:

  • attract more potential all people’s social, economic, and political inclusion, 
  • ensure equitable opportunity regardless of age, gender, handicap, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, or economic or another status,
  • eliminate outcome inequities, including the abolition of discriminatory laws, policies, and practices,
  • adopt measures, particularly budgetary, wage, and social protection programs, to create more equality over time, 
  • improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions, as well as their implementation,
  • an agreement with the World Trade Organization to increase developing nations’ presence and voice in international economic and financial organizations,
  • it seeks to promote orderly, safe, regular, and responsible movement and mobility of people via the implementation of well-planned and managed migration policies, and
  • facilitate transactions of migrant remittances to less than 3% and remove remittance corridors with costs greater than 5%.

GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

Help make and human habitation more inclusive, safe, resilient, and long-lasting. To live and flourish, we need an innovative, intelligent urban design that provides secure, affordable, and resilient communities with green and culturally exciting living environments. Urban areas and metropolitan regions are economic development engines, accounting for around 60% of global GDP. They do, however, contribute around 70% of global carbon emissions and more than 60% of resource use. The process of urbanization is leading to an increasing number of slum inhabitants, inadequate and overburdened infrastructure and services, rising air pollution, and uncontrolled rapid urbanization.

  • By 2030, guarantee that everyone has access to sufficient, safe, and affordable housing, as well as essential amenities and that slums are upgraded,
  • all people will have access to safe, affordable, accessible, and sustainable transportation systems, with a focus on increasing road safety, particularly through the expansion of public transportation,
  • increase efforts to conserve and preserve the world’s cultural and natural heritage,
  • significantly minimize the number of fatalities and reduce the direct economic losses caused by catastrophes, especially water-related disasters, concerning world GDP, with a focus on safeguarding the poor and vulnerable populations.
  • Reducing cities’ negative per capita environmental effect by paying specific attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management,
  • provide universal access to green and public places that are safe, inclusive, and accessible to women and children, the elderly, and people with disabilities,
  • strengthen national and regional development planning to promote beneficial economic, social, and environmental linkages between urban, peri-urban, and rural regions, and
  • assist LDCs, particularly through financial and technical support, in constructing sustainable and resilient structures out of locally available materials.

GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

Goal 12 of the Sustainable Development Goals strives to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns also about encouraging resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing essential services, green and dignified jobs, and a higher quality of life for all. Also, seeks to ensure long-term consumption and production patterns SDG 12 promotes resource and energy efficiency, environmental sustainability, and access to essential services, green and decent jobs, and a higher quality of life for everyone. If everyone in the globe switched to energy-efficient light bulbs, the world would save US$120 billion each year. Hence the vision to achieve by responsible consumption and production SDG’S are as follows:

  • halve per capita global food waste at retail and consumer levels,
  • minimize food losses along production and supply chains,
  • motivate businesses, particularly big and multinational corporations, to adopt sustainable practices and include sustainability information into their reporting cycle, and
  • encourage sustainable public procurement methods that are in line with the national mission and vision.

GOAL 13: Climate Action

Climate Change is a paramount cause and needs to address because it’s not just harming the earth but also the habitat on earth if actions are not taken now or being ignored this natural disaster will worsen and the end will not be favourable to anyone at all.

 Due to climate change the occurrence of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones, reduced agricultural production and food security, increased health risks, damaged critical infrastructure, and disrupted the provision of basic services such as water, education transportation, sanitization and energy. Its adverse effect is the most at this period and It is wreaking havoc on national economies and claiming lives, costing people, communities, and countries dearly today and in the future. Human-caused greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change and are continuing to grow. Emissions increased faster from 2000 and 2010 than in the prior three decades and so much more to it, therefore it’s acute and urge to be treated now as it has its targets to be achieved by 2030 and those are:

  • it highlights the need to impresilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries,
  • WRI also calls for better education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on mitigation, adaptation and impact reduction,
  • Climate change measures to be included in national policies, plans, and planning in every nation individually as well as unitedly, and
  • facilitate systems for increasing capacity for effective climate change planning and management in LDCs and small island developing states, with an emphasis on women, youth, and local and disadvantaged groups.

GOAL 14: Life Below Water

According to statistics, oceans occupy more than 70% of our planet’s surface and serve an important part in maintaining life on Earth. They have been the most varied and significant ecosystem, leading to global and regional fundamental cycling as well as climate regulation. The ocean is a source of natural resources such as food, materials, chemicals, and energy. Ocean propels global processes that keep the Earth livable for humans. The sea eventually provides and regulates our rainfall, drinking water, weather, temperature, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we breathe.

However, coastal waters are currently deteriorating due to pollution, and ocean acidification is harming the functioning of ecosystems and biodiversity. This has a detrimental influence on the aquatic creature as well. Therefore, the respective authorities have set targets to be achieved by 2030 to protect the life underwater and a few of them are:

  • Preclude and drastically decrease all types of marine pollution, particularly from land-based activities, such as marine debris and nutrient contamination.
  • manage and safeguard marine and coastal ecosystems in a sustainable manner to avoid severe negative consequences, including by increasing their resilience, and take measures to restore them to attain healthy and productive seas,
  • reduce and mitigate the effects of ocean acidification, including increased scientific collaboration, and 
  • protecting at least 10% of coastal and marine regions, following national and international legislation and based on the best available scientific data.

GOAL 15: Life on Land

Thriving land life is the cornerstone for human existence on our planet. All of us are part of the planet’s ecology, and we have wreaked havoc on it via deforestation, habitat loss, and land degradation. Human activity has changed almost 75% of the earth’s surface, pushing wildlife and the environment into a smaller and smaller area of the globe. Encourage sustainable use of our ecosystems and biodiversity preservation and ecosystems is not a cause. It is critical to our survival.

Approximately a million species of plants and animals are endangered and so many have been extinct already and so much more it, if we don’t make an action plan now and harness them, the day of the end is not so far, therefore observing the extreme requirement of safeguarding the life on land following is the vision to be endeavoured by 2030:

  • control or eradication of priority species,
  • encourage fair and equitable sharing of the advantages resulting from the use of genetic resources, as well as proper access to the resources.
  • directly take measures to put a stop to poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna, 
  • address both the demand for and supply of illicit wildlife goods,
  • intends to fight desertification, and
  • restore damaged land and soil and aim for a world free of land degradation. Additionally, it supports the conservation of particularly biodiversity and mountain habitats.

GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

Every democratic society requires compassion and a strong moral compass. Persecution, injustice, and abuse continue to be prevalent, ripping away the very fabric of society. Conflict, instability, poor institutions, and restricted access to justice continue to be major threats to long-term development. In 2018, the number of individuals fleeing war, persecution, and conflict surpassed 70 million, the largest figure recorded by the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) in almost 70 years. We must establish robust institutions, global justice standards, and a dedication to peace everywhere. Targets have been set and endeavours to them by 2030 and a few of them are:

  • Reduce all types of violence and related death rates worldwide by a substantial margin,
  • promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and guarantee that all people have equal access to justice, and
  • reduce corruption and bribery of all kinds significantly. Create effective, responsible, and transparent intuitions.

GOAL 17: Partnerships to Achieve the Goal

A promising growth agenda necessitates equitable partnerships based on principles and values at the global, regional, national, and local levels. The Global Goals can only be fulfilled if we all work together. International investments and assistance are required to enable creative technical growth, fair trade, and market access, particularly for developing nations. To create a better society, we must be supportive, compassionate, innovative, enthusiastic, and, most importantly, united. Since, it’s significant to endeavours the targets for finance, trade, capacity building, technology, and systematic issues. by 2030 to make the earth a better place:

  • Improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection through strengthening domestic resource mobilization, especially through international assistance to poor nations,
  • Gather more financial resources for underdeveloped countries from a variety of sources, and
  •  Adopt and execute entrepreneur development regimes for LDCs,
  • Achieve a multilateral trading system that is global, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory, and equitable within the World Trade Organization, particularly by concluding talks under the Doha Development Agenda,
  • problems with the overall system,
  • Policy coherence and institutional cohesion and Improve policy consistency for long-term development.

Conclusion

“There must be a better way to make the things we want, a way that doesn’t spoil the sky, or the rain or the land”, is well said this is what sustainable development conveys, development without harming nature or any kind of inequalities. These 17 sustainable development goals are paramount to adopt today for not risking or ruining tomorrow. 

All these 17 SDG’s are tremendously interconnected and remedy plenty of social stumbling block and all these SDG’s are imperative to make the future better, this initiative taken by United Nations is commendable and needs to acknowledge and treated at this moment, because these problems are not period based and can’t be treated only by the finger movement, therefore it requires dedication and unity in the world to contribute positively towards all these goals for achieving them. No policies or laws will do anything until society is willing to adopt these changes and replenish our earth and its beneficial resources, eradicate any inequality, prejudice or any kind of discrimination and make it a better place for us and our future generation. Hence, it’s vital for the youth to take active participation since they are the future of this world and be the change, they wish to see in the world. 

Author: PALAK KAUSHIK, AMITY LAW SCHOOL, NOIDA

Editor: Kanishka VaishSenior Editor, LexLife India.

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