THE IMPACT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN

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Divorce, is also known as dissolution of marriage. Legally the couples are separating from each other. There are various reasons for divorce like lack of communication, lack of trust in the relationship these problems will leads to divorce. Lack of trust also leads the spouse to an alcoholic or drug addict. This paper talks about the how the divorce effect the child in his or her future. The divorce causes many negative impacts on child. The children living with the parents are learning from the parent’s behaviour. They will learn the positive and negative things. If the parents are divorced or the parents are using abusive language in front of the child it is more likely the child will use that kind of words. Also, the parents who are divorced or the parents who are separated from each other are associated with the children early home leaving.[1] If the family is financially sounded then it will increase the likelihood of residence

 In many studies it has been discussed that whether the divorce of parents makes the children easier or bad for the children. The divorce is mainly for the couples who can’t live or adjust with each other so they are legally separating from each other. If the partners have children the child is suffering the effect of divorce. There are many litterateurs in sociology, psychology and economics that document the negative effect or consequences for children of divorce, both as child and adult. The divorce rate is increase day by day. The survey shows that the child of divorce shows exhibit behaviour antisocial, impulsive or acting out. Also perform worst in academics, score low in IQ, reading, spelling and in math test. It is also show that the divorced parent child at the age of 23 leaves the house because of friction.

These children are more likely to marry or cohabit at an early and also likely to terminate or separate from the marriage. The divorced rate is increasing mainly because of the men who have experience a serious unemployment. If compare to other states where the divorce rate is comparatively less is mainly the men having employment and are financially sounded.[2] One sided separation may in this manner prompt more relationship instability of adults in non-marital relationships and with both more relational unions and more separations.

THE EFFECT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN

Divorce makes a massive change in the life of the child and it doesn’t matter the age of the child. They will witness the loss of love and affection between their parents and daily absence of one parent these will create a negative effect in the life of the children. These children will always have the question that “what is going to happen next” or “Who will take care of me” this is happen because the child is always connected to the parent and at a particular age the need more care, love and affection from their parents. If the child is no getting this form his or her parents then it will negatively affect the child in the future. Child mental health which is in each cycle, the same parent responds to an identical set of questions concerning the child’s mental health. Anxiety depression is a seven-item scale that asks the parent to indicate whether it is never, sometimes, or often true that the child seems to be unhappy, sad, or depressed is not as happy as other children; is too fearful or anxious is worried, cries a lot appears miserable, is unhappy, tearful, or distressed and is nervous, high strung, or tense.

EFFECT THE RELATIONSHIP

Divorced family children tend to have negative attitude towards the positive attitude towards the divorce. They don’t have any trust in relationship mainly because what they saw from his or her family give a negative impact to the concept of divorce. Mainly they are hesitating towards marriage. They feel that marriages are unstable and unpredictable. The parental breakdown affects the child and will be more tolerant to divorce. In the case of girls, the fear and anxiety to make decision about marriage will be very high. For boys the care if father is very essential and necessary and the absence of father will also experience less masculine sexual identification and more feminine sexual identification. Single parent child or stepfamily children are less likely to expect marriage. It says that the marital instability pass to one generation to next generation.[3] If the marital parent child married and the marital behaviour may adversely affect the person. They may have lack of faith in the partner or trust towards the partner, conflicts over money, excessive drinking, drug use and conflicts over money etc.

EFFECT THE EDUCATION

Divorce of the parent’s effect the child’s school performance. The children more likely to held back a grade and have lower grade point average. If the parents are divorced at the early age of the child then it is more likely to have emotional outcomes, it will affect the child education of the child. The children living in the stepfamilies have an academic performance gap than the children live with their own or biological parents. It is mainly affected to the adolescents. Child behaviour in school will also change due to the parental divorce, mainly the adolescent. These adolescents have many behavioural changes inside and outside the school.[4] The child will start using drugs, alcohol etc and also it leads to an addiction. Have the tendency to skip the classes and not doing the homework properly and also it says that girls are affected more than boys. These will lead to suspension, dropout and expulsion from the schools. Not only the divorced parental children also the child who lives with the stepfamilies to suspension and dropout.

EFFECT THE HEALTH

The divorced parental children are more likely to suffer physical health problems. Not only the parental divorce children also the remarriage will also affect the physical health of the child. The physical health issues like the increase the risk of asthma and cancer of the upper autodigestive tract, the anus, pancreas, lungs etc. If the divorce is due to alcoholic problem the child will also have a high risk of cancer at tobacco related and alcohol related. The mental health of the child will also affect due to divorce.[5] Child experience emotional and behaviour problem and many negative feelings. The emotional problems include sadness, loneliness, anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, fear, anger. These all problems will affect the child in future. The behavioural change in class and in society will also effect.

EXPLAIN DIVORCE TO THE CHILDREN

The parents should inform the child about the divorce as soon as possible. Divorce is very stressful event in life for the couple as well as the child. The child should know about the divorce of their parents. At least the parent should give some hind to the child about the divorce. The child about 6 to 11 years of age has the ability to understand the feelings and think so the parent can explain it much easily. 12 to 14 years of age child have the capacity to understand and issues related to divorce. In this case the relationship outside the family may increase. The outside relationship is in the sense friends, teacher, coach etc. These outside relationships will give support to the child internally. It will only happen when the parent explain the child about the divorce.

THE EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT ON CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT ON MARITAL DISSOLUTION

Marital dissolution is basically the family income for women and child. The husband has to give maintenance or financial support for the wife and child. It is also called as CSE. In USA CSE came in 1975 with the passage of Title IV-D of the Social Security Act. The CSE policy makes sure that the husband should increase the amount of child support to the wife in the divorced state. Marital dissolution is regularly connected with a sharp drop in family pay for women and children Child support-the instalment the non-resident parent, ordinarily the dad, is committed to pay to the resident parent-is intended to give proceeded with financial support to children following marital separation. Many truant dads neglect to pay child support following divorce or separation. In India if the divorced women who is not working then it is necessary of the husband to provide financial support for her and for the children.

EFFECT OF REMARRIAGE ON CHILDREN

The parents should inform the child about the divorce as soon as possible. Divorce is very stressful event in life for the couple as well as the child. Nowadays the child living with their own parents or the biological parents has declined and the stepfamilies have increased. Majorly there is negative effect of remarriage on children. Separation or divorce is difficult for the child in a very young age. The main effects of remarriage on children are; the child have problems bonding with his peers emotionally, health problems, low self-esteem which leads to difficulty in making friends, stressful life, stomach ache, feeling sick, missing classes etc are the negative effect of marriage. To avoid such situation the parents should talk to the child openly and try to understand the situation of the child. Allow the child to take time and adjust to the family by saying the child that the reason for a remarriage. Don’t make the child violent or be bad to him. Advance basic multifaceted nature and new family relationships are made by the birth of a new child in a remarriage. In Duberman (1975) case recommends that a new child born in a remarriage may go about as a bond between the couple’s older children;

however, a portion of the literature for practitioners noticed that the clinical evidence on the impacts of a new child on family connection transports in remarriage is blended. As noted above, in any case, little research has been done on either the determinants or outcomes of childbearing in remarriages.

Based on earlier investigations of child bearing the vast majority of which include considered just childbearing inside first marriages we built up a progression of hypotheses about how a lady& number of children and the age of her youngest child at the season of her remarriage will influence the likelihood of including a child inside a remarriage. Different elements anticipated that would influence childbearing in remarriage are re seen after the discussion of the fundamental hypotheses. This examination has tended to a few inquiries regarding childbearing in remarriage, and has brought up extra issues that require additionally think about. Specifically, the finding that birth probabilities are not influenced by the lady& prior number of children is evidence of the significance of having a new child as a feature of the way toward shaping a new family in remarriage, while the noteworthy impact of the age of the youngest child demonstrates the compelling impacts of life course and timing factors. The ongoing decay among whites in the likelihood of having a child in remarriage and the extending of the interval until that birth additionally bring up imperative issues about both the determinants and results of childbearing in re marriage amid a time of quick change in fertility, marriage, and family life.

STEPFAMILIES

The stepfamilies are also known as blended family. The stepfamilies are basically where the one parent has a child but that child is not genetically related to the partner. But the child is from the previous relationship of the spouse. The previous relationship can be due to divorce or due to the death of the spouse. The stepfamily member can be a non-biological parent: they are known as stepparent, non-biological child brought in to the family y marriage also known as the stepchild. There many conflicts happen in the family due to the stepfamilies mainly for the child. It will increase the stress in the family members due to several issues. Giving less recognition to the stepchild and not considering as his or her own child. The child may not feel comfortable with the new member in the family there for the child would have showed his or her anger towards the stepparent. The other case is that if the parent is suffering great stress then the parent is unable to help the child’s need. [6]The conflict arises when the stepparent favour only one of the children. Stepparent usually doesn’t have any good impact on family and to an extent it is a failure. It leads to stress for the parents as well as the child.

CONCLUSION

In this paper we discuss about the effect of divorce on children. Divorce is always a dreadful experience in a person’s life, especially a child. When parents’ divorce, children are not always acknowledged during the termination and settlement process. This oversight can lead to problems with the child perception of day-to-day life. The impact divorce has on a family is far more noticeable to the children of the family than to the parents. As a child, there are any circumstances or situations that affect a view, opinion, attitude, or memory. The parental divorce is related to children and adjustment are not always clear in the literature, there is agreement among most researchers that children experiencing parental divorce are at risk for a variety of negative developmental outcomes. Parental divorce was unrelated to girls externalizing behaviour trajectories, regardless of the timing of divorce. Parental divorce was related to boys externalizing trajectories differently depending on the timing of the divorce.

In particular, parental divorce during elementary school was related to an increase in boys externalizing behaviours that began in the year of the divorce and persisted for years afterward. Parental divorce during middle school was related to an increase in boys externalizing behaviours in the year of the divorce that declined below baseline levels in the year following the divorce and persisted into subsequent years.

Several studies also address whether parental divorce during childhood relates to long-term effects on adults’ own romantic relationships and their relationships with their parents later in life. Intergenerational studies suggest that parental divorce doubles the risk that one’s own marriage will end in divorce, in part because individuals whose parents have divorced are less likely to view marriage as a lifelong commitment the risk is exacerbated if both spouses experienced their parents’ divorce. Divorce can cause many different emotions to arise that children may be unfamiliar with, and those behaviours may cause some behavioural changes. Feeling angry and sad are some common feelings of children dealing with divorce Children have a hard time comprehending why their mother and father are arguing and cannot figure out why they are deciding to separate. The family needs to try their best to explain to the child why they are separating, while comforting the child as much as possible. From this paper we can understand that the child will negatively affect the parental divorce to the children and also effect the child in his or her future.

Author: Aswathi Radhakrishnan, School of Law, Christ (Deemed to be University), Bengaluru.


[1] William S. Aquilino, The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and, Vol. 52, No. 2

[2] Jonathan Gruber, Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long‐Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce,Vol. 22, No. 4,

[3] KorrelKanoy and Brent C. Miller, Children& Impact on the Parental Decision to Divorce; Family Relations, Vol.29, No. 3

[4] Lisa Strohschein, Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories; Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol.67, No. 5

[5] Lucia A. Nixon, The Effect of Child Support Enforcement on Marital Dissolution, The Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 1

[6] Carol B. Stack, Who Owns the Child? Divorce and Child Custody Decisions in Middle-Class Families, Social Problems, Vol. 23, No. 4,

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