Examination and Comparison of Option of Voluntary Liquidation under IBC and it’s Parallel under Companies Act

Reading time: 8-10 minutes.


With the approach of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code(IBC), 2016, a uniform, extensive Code was presented which enveloped all organizations, associations, and people (other than monetary firms). The arrangement was to present the demonstration back in 1992 yet it was not until 2016 that this arrangement was authoritatively added to supplement Companies Act 2013. Its essential objective is to merge the Insolvency goal measure into a most optimized plan of attack for all organizations, associations and people (other than monetary firms).

Presently, the IBC not just empowers the indebtedness procedures of the Corporate Debtor turning Insolvent yet in addition contains arrangements for Companies who need to give up their business and surrender their entitlement to carry on the equivalent.

The Central Government vide its notice presented in 2017 informed Section 59 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code.

Preceding the above Notification which advised the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Voluntary Liquidation Process) Regulation 2017 (“The Regulation”) and presented the idea of Voluntary Liquidation measure which was represented by the Companies Act 1956, as the arrangements under Companies Act 2013 were not informed. Along these lines implying that that deliberate liquidation or ending up of organization kept on being represented by the 1956 Act before the Government presented the notice on Section 59 of the IBC in 2017.

Voluntary Liquidation

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has informed Section 59 which manages Voluntary Liquidation, in the interim the Voluntary Liquidation measure being used before IBC, was Companies Act 1956 and Companies Act 2013. Deliberate Liquidation is the point at which an organization self forces upon itself to twist up and break up itself after endorsement of its investors. It by and large happens when organization turns ruined and can’t take care of its liabilities.

Presently, the public authority vide its Notification has revoked the arrangement of Voluntary Liquidation under Companies Act 1956 and Companies Act 2013.

The Companies Act 1956 had 38 Sections and Companies Act 2013 had 20 Sections which managed Voluntary Liquidation, however the IBC 2016, vide Chapter V of Part II comprises just of one Section i.e Section 59, which manages deliberate liquidation.

Another vital contrast between Companies Act and IBC 2016 is that under Companies Act 1956 the cycle of Voluntary Liquidation was characterized into 2 kinds i.e Members Voluntary twisting up and Creditors Voluntary twisting up. These qualifications made by Companies Act 1956, has been authoritatively dispensed with by Section 59 of IBC 2016.

As far as Section 59 of the IBC, a Corporate Person who hasn’t submitted any default, is just qualified for starting Voluntary liquidation measure. It is basic for us to comprehend, regardless of whether the term Default is existing default or incorporates past default also? At the point when we are to examine the meaning of Default under IBC, we discover that the definition specifies just the current obligations which are expected and not reimbursed yet payable in nature. The default which has happened in past and has been paid off, is excluded from the definition and is out of extent of Voluntary Liquidation for example S/59 of IBC. The default should be existing in nature whether from past or present, it doesn’t make any difference except if the installment is still due.

Another significant condition that is forced in IBC is that the liquidation happening ought not be to swindle any individual. It should be sensible and according to law.

Most of chiefs or the accomplices of the Corporate Person should make a revelation which ought to be made alongside an oath to confirm that the corporate individual isn’t in default or on the off chance that any obligations are expected, at that point it will take care of the equivalent under the proposed deliberate liquidation.

The assertion ought to be enhanced by budget summaries which should be examined appropriately alongside a valuation report of the corporate individual.

Inside about a month of the said announcement being presented, an uncommon goal will be passed by the donors (Contributors Resolution) requiring the corporate substance to be sold and afterward they will select an Insolvency Resolution Professional as a Liquidator.

Inside 7 days after section of the said affirmation, leasers who address 2/third estimation of complete obligation of Corporate element, endorse the Contributors Resolution.

In any case, who is a Contributory? According to the guidelines, a ‘donor’ is an individual who is individual from the organization or an accomplice of a LLP and whatever other individual who may contribute monetarily to the liquidation cycle of the corporate individual which may profit the organization overall.

The Registrar of Companies (ROC) and the Board will be told according to the arrangement of Section 59(4) for the goal passed under Section 59(3) in the wake of taking the endorsement of leaser or to sell the organization inside 7 days.


After the said amendment, all cases documented on or after the 01/04/2017 will be administered by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code of India and the arbitrating authority will be moved from High Court to National Company Law Tribunal as it were. Yet, what befalls the cases previously forthcoming under the watchful eye of High Court? The cases previously forthcoming under the watchful eye of the High Court even after relevance of the Code will keep on being managed by the Hon’ble High Court of the States.

Hence according to Rule 4 of the Companies (Transfer of Pending Proceedings) Rules, 2016, which was informed in December 2016 and became effective from April 2017, states that Voluntary Liquidation of organizations forthcoming under the steady gaze of any High Court before April 01, 2017 will be managed by that High Court as it were. In any case, any new Voluntary liquidation measure started on or after April 01, 2017, will be founded before the Hon’ble National Company Law Tribunal and will be represented by the IBC 2016 and guidelines thereof.

Under the new altered guidelines, the Public authority has improved on the cycle of Voluntary Liquidation as well as has likewise indicated time limits or rather time-frame for different compliances. The strategy for the interaction of Voluntary liquidation according to the revised guideline is summarized as underneath determined :-

I: A report is to be submitted called Accommodation of Presentation to Enlistment center of Organizations, which will express that the said organization will or ought to have the option to take care of its obligation and it has begun the cycle of intentional liquidation to not swindle any individual or element;

II: An Exceptional Goal will be passed to affirm the interaction of deliberate liquidation and a Bankruptcy Proficient will be designated as an outlet (“Endorsement”), inside a time span of about a month after the accommodation of affirmation. An endorsement of 2/third of the banks will likewise be required if the said corporate individual has any neglected obligations.

III: When the Endorsement is allowed a Public Notification is to be declared inside 5 days of such endorsement in Papers just as on the site (assuming any) of the Corporate Individual welcoming cases or complaints of all partners included.

IV: An implication about the award of Endorsement is to be sent inside seven days of such Endorsement to the Enlistment center of Organizations and the Board;

V: The fundamental finding of the approved capital, approximations of resource and liabilities, the proposed strategy and so on, is to be made into a Report called Primer Report, which will and submitted to the corporate individual inside a time of 45 days of the said Endorsement;

VI: Inside Thirty days from the most recent day of receipt of cases, check of such cases will be done and Inside 45 days from the most recent day of receipt of cases, the rundown of partners included will be finished.

VII: A ledger on the name of the said Corporate Element which will be trailed by the words’ compulsory liquidation’, in any of the booked banks, with the end goal of receipt of all sum because of the corporate element;

VIII: The cycle of offer of the multitude of resources of the Corporate Individual and the recuperation of sums which are because of the corporate individual and the acknowledgment of capital which are uncalled or neglected in nature or are commitments which are neglected, will be finished;

IX: The sums got from the acknowledgment of the Capitals will be circulated inside a time of a half year to all the partners in question;

X: A Last Report is to be put together by the Bankruptcy Proficient designated as the Vendor for the Corporate individual’s Voluntary Liquidation. Recorder of Organizations and the Board will likewise present the last report.

XI:An application is to be shipped off the Hon’ble National Organization Law Court for the disintegration or twisting up or Voluntary liquidation of the Corporate Individual,

XI: After the application is submitted to the Hon’ble Public Organization Law Court, it’s request for disintegration of the Corporate Individual will be submitted inside a time of fourteen days to the Recorder of Organizations.

The basic advances on the off chance that to be perceived from a basic perspective, at that point it should be summarized as beneath:-

  • The Directorate of the Corporate Individual will hold an executive gathering and the goal for deliberate liquidation of the corporate individual will be passed and a statement of the dissolvability of the corporate individual is likewise to be given.
  • The investors of the Corporate Individual will gather a gathering to affirm the goal for deliberate liquidation of the Corporate Individual and a Bankruptcy Proficient will be delegated as an outlet of the Corporate Individual.
  • Any obligation owed by the Corporate Individual will be endorsed by the lenders who address the 2/third of the obligation esteem and the equivalent will be affirmed inside seven days of passing of such goal.
  • All the Important filings which are to be done can’t avoid being finished with the Enlistment center of Organizations, Indebtedness and Liquidation Leading group of India and Personal Expense Specialists.
  • After the arrangement of the Vendor, he will assume responsibility for the Corporate Individual and will continue according to the set strategy which incorporates the recuperation of sums which are because of the corporate individual and the acknowledgment of capital, the repayment of neglected obligations and the returns of the above interaction which will be appropriated to the partners in question.
  • A Public Notification will be given by the Outlet in Papers and site of Corporate Individual, welcoming cases from all the partners in question.
  • The designated Outlet will endeavor to accomplish or rather finish the deliberate liquidation measure inside a time interval of A year from the date of beginning of liquidation.
  • In the event that it is discovered that the records of the Corporate Individual have been totally twisted up, and its resources totally exchanged, the outlet will make an application to the Settling Authority for example Public Organization Law Council for the liquidation of such Corporate Individual.
  • After an application documented by the Vendor, The Arbitrating Authority will pass a request, requesting the corporate account holder to be disintegrated from the date of the request and the corporate individual will stand broke up appropriately.
  • A copy of the said order will be sent to the concerned authority with which the corporate individual was enrolled.


Before the said amendment was presented we can securely accept that The Organizations Demonstration 2013 separated the entire cycle into 4 sections which were:

  • Ending up by the NCLT on a failure to pay obligations [S. 271(1)(A)]
  • Deliberate Wrapping Up (S. 304-323) – where the councils didn’t have any position to engage request regarding ending up as the standards outlined by the High (Court Rules 1959) whenever before the initiation of 2013 Act will be appropriate because of non-warning of arrangements of deliberate liquidation.
  • Ending up on other than a powerlessness to pay obligations.
  • Appointment of Liquidator

Hence we see that Segment 59 of the IBC facilitates the entire cycle by eliminating the ambiguities and carrying a course of events to the entire interaction.

Author: Shreya Rai, Lloyd Law College.


  1. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Voluntary Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2017
  2. non-payment of debt when whole or any part or instalment of the amount of debt has become due and payable and is not repaid by the debtor or the corporate debtor, as the case may be.
  3. Limited Liability Partnership Act
  4. Voluntary Liquidation – A Comparative Analysis Between IBC And CA 1956

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