Safety of workers under Factories Act 1948

Reading time : 6 minutes


It is compulsory at the a part of every dweller of a factory to offer protection measures vital to relaxed the protection of the people within the factory. The Factories Act gives the guidelines for the occupier. The following are the provisions dealing with the protection of the employees:

1. Fencing of machinery (Sec. 21): In every manufacturing unit, risky parts of any machinery have to be securely fenced at the same time as such components of the machinery are in motion. If it is not included, it’s far an offence. The Manager can not break out from legal responsibility on the ground that some one has removed the fence without his information or consent .But if for some reason, the fencing breaks down and because of this, the gadget stays unfenced for a brief time, then the Manager isn’t always responsible. He show The position has burden this carried even as, then of the proof out he device is his lies accountable duty on became the for of Manager penalty maintaining working. The to, If he shows guard fails that to ,In held Caruil that the Vs. Duty Androw of fencing Baruay extends & Sons to Ltd shutting, it was of the machinery so that it can’t fly out and strike the

workman if it breaks, Dangerous element manner any machinery or its element which can also motive reasonable hazard throughout its running, if it’s far without protection. The following are the provisions concerning precautions to be taken regarding risky machines:

a. If the gadget reasons injury to everyone appearing fairly underneath regular circumstance. (WalkersVs. Bletechley Flet and Ltd.,)

b. If it is unfenced and if danger may be predicted inside the normal course of affairs with the aid of the alert, professional employees, then this type of machine is risky. The fencing of equipment must be secure and safe, and have to shield in opposition to reasonable risks. (Mitchell Vs. North British Rubber Co. Ltd.,)

2. In each manufacturing unit, the following have to be securely fenced with the aid of safeguards of substantial construction and they ought to be continuously maintained and stored in role, even as the elements of machinery fenced are in motion or in use-

I. Each moving issue of a valuable participant and every fly ,wheel associated with a principal player. 

Ii. Headrace and tailrace of every water haggle turbine.

Iii. Any part of a stock bar which obligations beyond the pinnacle inventory of a lathe, and they’re in at ease feature and securely fenced.

The following ought to also be securely fenced:

a. Every a part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary converter.

B. Every part of transmission system, and

C. Every risky part of every other system.

I. Further, it is crucial to make an examination of any part of the machinery aforesaid at the same time as it’s far in movement or, due to such exam, to perform lubrication or other adjusting operation at the same time as the gadget is in motion.

Ii. In the case of any a part of a transmission machinery applied in prescribed system, it’s far essential to make an examination of such part of the device while it is in motion or, due to such examination, to perform any mounting or delivery or belts or lubrication or different adjusting operation while the machinery is in motion. The State Government may additionally via crucial tips .Prescribe such further precautions.


While the equipment is in motion such exam or operation have to be made simplest with the aid of a specially professional adult male worker carrying tight becoming garb (with a purpose to be supplied with the aid of using the occupier) whose call has been recorded inside the sign in prescribed on this behalf and who has been supplied with a certificates of his appointment.

Three Young human beings ought to now not be hired to art work at risky machines till they may be completely suggested as to the risks concerned in meddling with the gadget. (Sec. 23)

4. Suitable putting equipment and other devices to lessen of the electricity and power for the duration of emergency must be furnished. (Sec. 24)

5. Self acting machines (Sec. 25): The traversing part of self performing machines or any cloth carried thereon, must no longer be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse inner a distance of 18 inches from any steady shape which isn’t a part of the device. Any device mounted in advance than the graduation of the Factories Act may be exempted from such provisions, if the Chief Inspector thinks wholesome. He can also impose conditions for Making sure protection as he thinks in form. Thus self-acting machines should be used correctly and with care as required underneath Sec. 25 of the Factories Act.

6. All machines driven via the usage of strength need to be effectively guarded to save you dangers. (Sec. 26)

7. For urgent cotton, women or children have to no longer be hired. (Sec. 27)

8. The hoists and lifts need to be made from sound substances and must be properly maintained. Sufficient precautions and safeguards want to be additionally provided. (Sec.28)

9. In the case of lifting machines, chains and ropes, enough safeguards need to be prescribed for the cause of raising and lowering folks, goods or materials.(Sec. 29)

10. The revolving machines need to be fenced to keep away from risks. (Sec. 30) A be aware indicating the speed of the system must be affixed near it.

11. If any production gadget takes vicinity in a system at a pressure above the atmospheric stress, powerful measures should be supplied for comfy working strain(Sec.31)

12. The flooring, steps and stair instances need to be in a valid circumstance. (Sec. 32)

13. Hand rails and different protection measures must be furnished for stair times, steps, and so on. Safe way of get proper of entry to each worker vicinity in threat of the can production facility be ought to saved. Be provided (Sec. 33) so that any

14. The pits beginning in fences or ground which thru its nature or of production included. (Sec 34 risky) need to be securely fenced

15. Persons have to no longer be hired to enhance, carry or move any loaded machineries which are possibly to motive accidents.

16. If the producing approach in any manufacturing unit entails chance of accidents to the eyes by using the use of exposure to excessive slight, then protection to eyes ought to be furnished inside the shape of effective display or suitable goggle. (Sec. 35)

17. If the producing method consists of the emission of unstable fumes or gases, then they need to be limited in every chamber, tank, or pipes and so on, in order that the human beings aren’t uncovered to it. (Sec. 36)

18. In any manufacturing facility, no transportable electric light or electric powered equipment exceeding 24 volts must be authorized for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or different restrained area .Without offering appropriate enough safety tool. Similarly, if any inflammable gasoline fume or dirt is to be used in the above vicinity, then it want to be of flame proof manufacturing.

19. If the producing way entails the emission of explosives, inflammable dust, and plenty of others ., such emission ought to be prevented at the assets of producing. In this sort of case, the worker must put on appropriate respiration gadget and a belt securely related to rope, and the unfastened quit must be held via someone fame out facet the restrained vicinity. (Sec.37)

20. Precautions in case of fireplace (Sec. 38): Every production facility want to be furnished with way of get away in case of hearth-

  1. The doorways of exit from any room need to now not be locked immediately or mounted opened. They from have to interior. Be All results easily the doorways and must open outwards besides sliding doors.
  2. B. In all the factories, exits, in case of fireplace, should be marked in a language results easily understood by means of the use of the people and in letters or a few different effective signs and signs and symptoms. Provisions need to be made in order that everyone
  3. In the manufacturing unit in reality hears the caution given in case of fireplace.
  4. In each room of the producing unit, unfastened passage manner giving access to technique of get away ought to be maintained.
  5. If greater than 20 human beings are hired in any place above the floor or if there are explosives or extraordinarily inflammable materials are used, then smooth manner of escape must be provided.
  6. The State Government should make recommendations regarding the way of get away in case of fire and the kind of hearth preventing system to be provided and maintained.
  7. Writing In some require instances, any the extra Inspector or may additionally one of a kind via way of measures order in.. The questions regarding method of escape are cited Chief Inspector for decision. Appeal is likewise allowed to State Government from the choice of the Chief Inspector.

21. If any building or gadget or plant in a production facility is on this kind of state of affairs-risky to human lifestyles or safety, then the producing unit inspector have to require the occupier to supply the drawings, and so on., and moreover the assessments conducted for the safety of the constructing, system or plant of the producing facility. He may additionally serve an order specifying the measures to be taken for the safety of the people. (Sec. 39)

He may additionally order prohibiting use of any building of equipment or plant till it’s far nicely repaired.(Sec.40)

He may additionally order for restore and proper maintenance of a constructing, if it impacts the fitness and welfare of the personnel. (Sec. 40-A)

22. Safety Welfare Officers: In any manufacturing facility where a thousand or greater people are employed, which incorporates hazard of bodily damage, and so on, then the State Government can also rent vital sort of safety officials. The duties of such officers are prescribed with the aid of the State Government. (Sec. 40-B)


Hence the safety and security under factories act is given utmost important and detailed provisions and protection is taken place under factories Act . Not only welfare of workers but The safety of officers is also taken into considerations.

Author: Vaishnavi Krupakaran

Editor: Kanishka VaishSenior Editor, LexLife India.

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